Basic information on pain transmission

Pain is an unpleasant sensation often caused by damaged tissue.

According to the current sate of knowledge, the pain stimulus is registered by special receptors, so-called nociceptors. Nociceptors can be activated either by the effect of direct noxic stimuli on the nerve endings or by pain trigger substances from damaged tissue, such as protons, potassium, acetylcholine, serotonin, or histamine releasing peptide.

Like all sensitive cells, nociceptors have a rest potential. Ion channels open during stimulation and depolarisation takes place. This usually lasts as long as the stimulus is active and the extent depends on the intensity of the stimulus. This receptor potential is transformed to a series of action potentials, whose frequency increases when the amplitudes of the receptor potential (the stimulus intensity) also increase.

An action potential can be envisaged as follows:

the inner part of a sensitive cell has a negative potential of -60 to -100 mV (millivolt) as compared to the outer part at rest. The cause of this lies in the different distribution of the ions in both parts of the cell. If the threshold potential is exceeded by a stimulus, the membrane's sodium channels are temporarily opened (< 1 ms = 1 millisecond) and the membrane potential is lowered abruptly (< 0,1 ms). Even the inner part of the nerve becomes momentarily positive.

The rapid decrease in sodium permeability and the slow rise in potassium permeability restore the rest potential. The nerve fibre is insensitive for 2 ms following an action potential because the sodium ion system is inactive. This shows that the maximum frequency by which action potentials are triggered and transmitted through the nerve fibres, is 500 Hz (Hertz). Alongside the afferent pain transmission system there is an efferent pain alleviation system whose fibres emanate from different levels of the central nervous system and regulate the influx of nociceptive stimuli.

Pharmaceutical products make use of the efferent pain transmission system.


The basic concept is to turn this system around and prevent the pain from reaching the brain.

The concept of DE - Ka Titan is based on this new approach. It reduces the action potential in the nerve tracts on the way to the brain.